Class Notes

Current as of: June, 1999
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Classification: 122/

This class relates to heating liquids, generating vapors from liquids, treating the vapors generated for use, such as superheating or cooling them, and conserving the heat remaining in the liquid or vapor after a part of the heat energy has been made use of for any purpose. To bring a liquid heater into this class, the chamber, receptacle or conduit in which the liquid is heated must be fluid tight.

This class includes combinations of steam superheaters, feed-water heaters, steam separators, condensers, traps, manhole-closures, safety devices, cleaners, and feeders with a boiler when the structure of necessity must form a part of the boiler structure combination, also parts of boilers unless they are of general application.

This class includes water-cooled grates whether or not in connection with a boiler for heating the boiler water. It also includes the boiler and furnace in combination or the boiler alone with the furnace alone.

The liquid containers classified in this class may be heated by solid or fluid fuel burned in any type of furnace or burner, by friction, or by chemical action other than combustion, or by electricity. The heat may be applied directly to the walls of the fluid containing chamber or indirectly by the interposition of a fluid in a distinct and separate chamber, which fluid being heated may impart its heat to the fluid to be finally heated. When the fluid is heated by the interposition of another fluid the heat generator must be a part of the unitary structure of the fluid heater, with one exception--to wit: devices for generating a vapor having a vapor separator within the fluid chamber may be heated indirectly by a fluid, the furnace for heating which does not form part of the unitary structure. The fluid may be heated also by a heat radiating body in either a liquid, or solid state, which body may be either on the inside or on the outside of the fluid chamber; but if said heating body be inside the fluid chamber its nature must be such that it will not mix with the fluid to be heated.


The distinction between water heaters in Classes 122 and 126 is this: The water heaters in Class 122 have a closed water containing chamber or receptacle for holding the water while it is heated or have one or more closed conduits through which the water flows while being heated; but the water heaters in class 126 are of the open type. In Class 122 are classified mechanism for regulating both the inflow of water to the boiler and the burning of the fuel in all cases when steam is generated and also in all cases when water is heated, excepting in devices for heating water where the opening of a valve to permit water to flow through the heater at the same time increases the heat of the heat generator, such devices being classified in Class 126, subclasses 351; but this subclass relates only to the controlling device for

the water and fuel. The structure of the water heater or boiler together with such a controlling mechanism are classified in Class 122.


15, Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,

104.03, for pipe and tube cleaners generally 314, 316.1+ and 406+ for pipe and tube cleaners and boiler tube blowers using air or steam blast and/or suction.

60, Power Plants,

641.1+, for power plants utilizing solar water heaters and steam generators and subclasses 39.05 and 39.53+ for processes and apparatus for addition of steam and/or water with products of combustion.

73, Measuring and Testing,

215+, for weir maters combined with feed water heater structures.

99, Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,

276, 277, and 359+ for beverages and food cookers using liquid heaters pertinent to this class; and subclasses 468+ for treatment of dairy food which includes milk treating apparatus using liquid heaters.

116, Signals and Indicators, for signals.

126, Stoves and Furnaces,

5, for combination cooking stoves and water heaters and steam generators; 20+ for steam heated ovens and generators; 33 for combination steam generators and steam tables; 31, 34, 35 for water-backs and safety devices therefor and water heating tanks; 101 for combination of hot air furnaces with boilers for hot water or steam; 513+ for fireplace water heaters; 344, 345+ and 350+ for domestic water heaters and furnace heated kettles; 348 for steam generators and cookers; 361 for structure of common "kitchen" or "range" stand boilers when they are not heated directly (stand boilers having a direct heater are classified in Class 122); 364+, 367, 368, and 373+ for other types of water heaters; 415+, 417+ and 452 for solar heaters. 137, Fluid Handling,

11, for processes for regulating the boiler water level, subclass 94 for the control of the fuel in response to boiler or water heater condition subclasses 156+ for gas pressure discharge of liquid as to a boiler, subclasses 171+ for steam

traps, subclasses 386+ for level responsive valves, and subclasses 557 and 558 for pressure and level responsive signals and indicators.

138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, appropriate subclasses for the wall structure of a boiler tube or flue;

89+, for plugs for pipes; and subclasses 98+ for patches for pipes.

165, Heat Exchange, appropriate subclass, for a heat exchanger, per se.

202, Distillation: Apparatus,

152+, for liquid volatilization for the purpose of recovering material from the vapor produced by condensation or absorption.

204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,

196+, for electrolytic protection apparatus (e.g., to prevent corrosion, scale formation, or other objectionable action upon liquid heaters or vaporizers, etc.).

205, Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,

724+, for processes of electrolytic protection of metal objects (e.g., to prevent corrosion, scale formation, or other objectionable action upon liquid heaters or vaporizers, etc.). 210, Liquid Purification or Separation,

175+, for a heater or heat exchanger combined with liquid purification means.

219, Electric Heating,

281+, for water heaters and steam generators particularly adapted to be heated by an electric heater.

220, Receptacles, appropriate subclasses, for wall structures of containers of more general utility and for safety devices and for manhole covers.

264, Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,

30, for furnace lining formation or repair and see the notes thereto.

411, Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener,

367, for a threaded fastener and nut having stay bolt spacer

sleeve; subclass 370 for a threaded fastener and nut having a stay bolt bearing washer; subclasses 379+ for a threaded stay bolt, per se; and subclass 505 for an unthreaded stay bolt, per se.

417, Pumps,

36+, for liquid level control of a pump drive motor, subclasses 108+ for aerated column type pumps wherein is elevated by alternate globules of water and steam and subclasses 118+ for pumping of liquid by supplying or exhausting of gaseous motive fluid to or from a pump chamber. 451, Abrading, for structural features of a cleaner for a tube or flue.

510, Cleaning Compositions for Solid Surfaces, Auxiliary Compositions Therefor, or Processes of Preparing the Compositions,

247+, for compositions for descaling steam boilers or other water containers.



Used as a generic term for a liquid heater. The nature of the liquid heated is immaterial. Whether the liquid heated is conducted from the boiler as liquid or vapor depends upon the amount supplied and the degree of heat attained, and for this reason generally no distinction has been noted in the classification, similar structures being classified together regardless of the ultimate effect. In the type of boilers known as "flashers" this distinction is of importance and provision has been made therefor.


Include both small and large tubes through which the products of combustion pass unless the term "flue" is used with them, in which case "fire tubes" would refer to the small tubes, and "flues" to the large tubes for the products of combustion.


To be taken in a generic sense as meaning vapor.


Designate vapor tubes whether the vapor therein be formed from water or any other liquid. WATER TUBES

Designate tubes, both large and small, through which liquid or vapor passes.


To be taken in a generic sense as meaning liquid.