US PATENT CLASS 353
Current as of: June, 1999
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This class provides for projectors not elsewhere classified. This class includes the projectors for particular types of objects to be projected; such as maps and aerial photographs, targets, transparent plates, information data, microscopic objects, scales and indicators, and stencils or perforated plates. Various other species and types of projectors are also included here such as kaleidoscopic, heliostats, stereoscopic and relief, pointers, gun type, moving images on screens, episcopes and cabinets including screens.
Various plural and composite types of projectors are included such as projectors involving plural projected images including multicolor, projectors for images combined with real objects, projectors with manual delineation, and plural projection with a single light source.
Projectors selective at the operators choice are also included as where the selection is between a slide and a film strip, between a cabinet and a distant screen, and between opaque and transparency projection i.e., epidiascope.
Certain combinations and perfecting features are included such as with vehicles, with sound accompaniment, with editing or auxiliary viewing, additional illumination of or near screen, temperature control, distortion compensation, housings, structurally related projectors and screens, and lamp control. Included also are improvements in particular elements of or their relation to the projector, when the elements are claimed in combination with other projector structure. These improvements may be in the projector filters, prisms, shutters, gates, reflectors, lens supports, condensers, and slide changers.
Certain subcombinations of projectors are included here, usually where they are peculiar to projectors, such as slide changers, housings and picture carriers.
Methods of projection are included here. This is usually the method of operating projection apparatus in a particular manner.
LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES
PROJECTORS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE Class 434, Education and Demonstration, subclasses 180, 314+, and 324+, provides for projectors with some limitation for use with teaching. Class 178, Telegraphy, especially subclass 23 for teles:graphic printing which may involve projection. These may also be considered as projectors combined with telegraphy apparatus. Class 250, Radiant Energy, subclass 329 has the projection of invisible radiant energy images onto a fluorescent or phosphorescent screen, subclasses 458.1+ has the irradiation of fluorescent and phosphorescent devices and subclasses 483.1+ for fluorescent and phosphorescent devices, per se. Class 359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, subclasses 369 and 400 provides for compound lens systems with viewing screens. Class 351, Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting, subclasses 210+ and 237+, for eye examining instruments with chart or target projection. Class 352, Optics: Motion Pictures, for motion picture projectors. Class 396, Photography, subclass 430 for a camera convertible to developed image projectors or viewer. Class 355, Photocopying, subclasses 18+ for copying cameras or projecting printers involving projection on a photos:graphic film for recording the projected image; the copying background in a patent is sufficient for classification in Class 355 as opposed to this Class 353. Class 356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 391+ provides for configuration comparison involving projection on a viewing screen. Class 348, subclasses 744+ for television projection devices.
PROJECTORS COMBINED WITH OTHER STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE
Class 33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 1, provides for image projectors combined with measuring means; subclasses 20.1+ for image projectors in combination with a claimed scribing or tracing means; and subclasses 501+, for patents including an image projector and a feeler which contacts an article to be tested. Class 434, Education and Demonstration, subclasses 180, 314+, and 324+ provides for an image projector having mechanism for uncovering an answer or in combination with an educational device which includes means by which a student controls or operates the device and subclass 286 for planetarium projectors. Class 52, Static Structures (e.g., Buildings), provides for a projector in combination with a stadium or auditorium. Class 368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, subclasses 41+,
82+, and 239+, for clocks including projection of the hands or dial. Class 116, Signals and Indicators, subclasses 246+ for radio tuning indicators with projectors, Class 177, Weighing Scales, subclass 178 for projection scales. Class 178, Telegraphy, especially subclasses 23+ for teles:graphic printing which may include projection. Class 352, Optics: Motion Pictures, subclass 131 provides for a projector in combination with a motion picture projector and Class 355, Photocopying, subclasses 18+ for copying cameras which contain projection systems. Class 348, subclasses 744+ for television projection devices.
PROJECTOR SUBCOMBINATION CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE
Class 206, Special Receptacle or Package, subclass 456 provides for slide magazine, per se, i.e., with no limitation for operation in a projector; Class 226, Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length, especially subclasses 52+ for film advancing mechanisms; Class 242, Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding, subclasses 324+ for a device for unwinding and rewinding a machine convertible information bearing carrier which may include image film, and subclasses 520+ for a convolute winding process or machine in general use; Class 362 Illumination, subclasses 257+, for projection lamps which may be used in projectors; Class 248, Supports, subclasses 637+ for projection machine supports; Class 359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, subclasses 443+ for projection screens; subclasses 642+ for lenses; subclasses 838+ for reflectors; and subclasses 885+ for optical filters.
FACSIMILE, TELEVISION, AND TELEGRAPHIC PRINTING
Exhibitors involving conversion from electrical to optical form are in Class 348, subclasses 744+ when a television receiver is claimed in combination with projection structure (such as lens, filter and reflector combinations) to transmit the image from a cathode-ray tube to a viewing surface. Class 359 provides for lenses, filters and reflectors set forth as being for use with a television or in a television cabinet. This Class 353 provides for combinations or subcombinations of projectors which employ a concentrated source of light where the source of light is not a cathode-ray tube. Since the cathode-ray tube has the image thereon and no concentrated light is projected through or reflected from that image, the combination of a cathode-ray tube and a lens, for example, is not within the Class 353 definition.
Class 178, subclasses 23+ provides for detailed stock tickers or other Class 178 printers in combination with either a detailed or a broadly claimed projector. This Class 353, in subclasses 46+ provides for a detailed projector in combination with a nominal stock ticker. Class 178, subclass 42 provides for the combination of a nominal printer, a nominal projector, and a detailed tape-feeding mechanism, since Class 226 does not provide for this combination. Class 226 does provide for tape-advancing means in combination with
a projector when only one optical element is claimed, or in combination with a nominal printer; but does not provide for a combination including a projector and a printer.
Class 362 in subclasses 257+ provides for light projectors or subcombinations of image projectors which merely claim elements such as lights, condensing lenses, filters, screens for filtering, masks, or reflectors. However, this Class 353 provides for image projectors which include elements such as a slide guideways, filmgates, objective lenses, viewing screens, or means to dissolve images. A light or shadow spot projector for pointing out part of an image on a viewing screen is classified in this Class 353, subclass 42 even though other light projectors are in Class 362.
Class 362 includes patents where the mere image of the light source or its filament is obtained.
OPTICAL ELEMENTS (E.G., LENSES AND SCREENS)
Class 359 includes projection lens systems, lens mounts, lens supports, and optical elements where no other image projector structure such as a slide changer shutter, film gate, viewing screen or light source is recited in the claims.
Class 359, subclasses 443+ also provides for projection screens, per se, or in combination with lenses. However, when a projection screen is in combination with an image projector having a concentrated source of light, classification is in Class 353.
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTORS
Motion picture image projectors which create an illusion of motion by employing the persistence of vision of a person are provided for in Class 352. If there is a recitation in the claims of "a motion picture projector", "animation projector", or equivalent terminology; or if structure definitive of motion picture mechanism is made, classification is in Class 352. However, the mere motion picture background is not sufficient to remove subject matter from Class 353 to Class 352. Patents which set forth the combination of a still and a motion picture projector are classified in Class 352, subclass 131; and those patents which claim devices convertible from still to motion or from motion to still picture projector are classified in Class 352, subclass 131; and those patents which claim devices convertible from still to motion or from motion to still picture projectors are in Class 352, subclasses 136 and 147.
Class 352, subclasses 1+ provides for motion picture projectors accompanied by sound where the "motion" is either claimed or disclosed.
SLIDE EXHIBITORS AND SLIDES
Class 40, subclasses 701+ provides for slides and slide mounts where no particular image or optical relationships are recited. However, this Class 353, subclass 120 includes slides where there is a relationship of the images thereon, or where the slide has both a visual and a sound record.
Slide changers disclosed as being useful with a mere viewer are in Class 40, while slide changers disclosed for use with image projectors or for either viewers or image projectors are in this Class 353. REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS
33, Geometrical Instruments,
1, for image projectors combined with measuring means; subclasses 20.1+ for image projectors in combination with a claimed scribing or tracing means; and subclasses 501+, for patents including an image projector and a feeler which contacts an article to be tested.
52, Static Structures (e.g., Buildings), for a projector in combination with a stadium or auditorium.
177, Weighing Scales,
178, for the combination of a projector with a significantly claimed weighing scale.
42, for a projector, film feeding means and a stock ticker in combination.
206, Special Receptacle or Package
456, for a photo slide magazine, per se, where no relationship or means for connecting to a projector is claimed.
226, Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length, especially 52+, for film advancing means in a projector where no more than one optical element is claimed and where no detailed optics is recited.
242, Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,
324+, for a device for unwinding and rewinding a machine convertible information bearing carrier which includes image film, and subclasses 520+ for a convolute winding process or machine in general use.
637+, for projector supports where no optical limitations are set forth.
250, Radiant Energy,
330+, for methods and apparatus to convert infrared radiation into a visible image, subclass 361 for invisible radiant-energy-responsive electric signalling devices which include a luminescent device responsive to the radiant energy, subclasses 458.1+ for methods and apparatus for irradiating fluorescent and phosphorescent devices and subclasses 483.1+ for fluorescent and phosphorescent devices, per se.
744+, for a television means in combination with projection means.
351, Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,
210+, and 237+ for chart or target projection devices employed for examining and testing eyes. 352, Optics: Motion Pictures, for motion picture projectors.
18+, for copying cameras and projection printers.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing,
391+, for measuring and testing patents which involve image projection where an article is compared to a scale or where an article is compared to a standard by superimposing the two or by viewing the two concurrently when they or their images are immediately adjacent each other.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,
41+, 82+, and 239+ for a projector in combination with a clock where more than the mere hands and face of the clock is claimed.
369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,
100+, for means to optically record or reproduce sound.
430, for a camera convertible to developed image projectors or viewer.
9+, for diagnostics, subclasses 38+ for controls, subclasses 130+ for image formation, subclasses 168+ for charging, subclasses 177+ for exposure, subclasses 222+ for development, subclasses 297+ for transfer, subclasses 320+ for fixing, subclasses 343+ for cleaning, and subclasses 361+ for document handling.
428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, appropriate subclasses, for a stock-material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet, and which may be useful as a projection screen, but with no optical limitations; and especially
143+, for such a stock-material product comprising embedded particulate matter (e.g., glass) which acts to diffuse or reflect light.
434, Education and Demonstration,
180, 314+, and 324+ for an image projector having mechanism for uncovering an answer or in combination with an educational device which includes means by which a student controls or operates the device and subclass 286 for planetarium projectors.
CONCENTRATED LIGHT SOURCE
The source of illumination for the projector. It may be either a projection lamp or a lens and mirror system utilizing sunlight.
A lens which parallels the light from the light source for uniform distribution over the object to be projected and makes the light impinge on the object at right angles to the plane of the object.
FILM STRIP An indeterminate length of film having a plurality of images thereon.
The optical counterpart of an object produced by a lens or other optical system. In an image projection system an image of an object is formed on a screen or other viewing surface. A photos:graphic camera forms an image of an object on a photosensitive film. After the film is developed, a picture of the original object appears on the film. A picture of this type is generally employed as the object in image projectors.
LIGHT PARALLELING STRUCTURE
Optical elements for directing the light from the concentrated light source so that it impinges on the object perpendicular to the plane of the object and uniformly illuminates the object to be projected.
The object is the subject, the image of which is to be projected (see definition of image).
Structure for holding the object in the projecting position, as well as for moving the object in and out of such position. Examples are slide transfer mechanisms and film holders.
PROJECTION OBJECTIVE OR PROJECTION LENS SYSTEMS
Forms an image of the object on the viewing surface, and is located between the object and viewing surface. PROJECTOR OR STEREOPTICON
A device for projecting an image of an object by passing light through or around the object or reflecting light from the object on a viewing screen for the purpose of more conveniently viewing the image of the object. The image is usually enlarged or reduced in size with reference to the object; and the image is also usually in a more convenient position for viewing or recording. Since projection is a common property of lenses and mirrors, the projectors in this class involve some structure for facilitating or enhancing the projection over what incidentally occurs in these optical elements. A projector generally includes (1) a concentrated light source from either an artificially or natural emanation, (2) a light paralleling element (e.g., condensing lens), (3) a holding or positioning device for the object to be projected, (4) a projection objective or projection lens system comprising one or more optical elements for directing the light after it passes through or is reflected from the object to form an image, and (5) a screen for receiving the image and making the image formed by this light available for use. The projectors in this class utilize natural or artificial (usually) light within the visible spectrum. The object to be projected is usually planar in natural with the plane extending transverse to the direction of projection, and may be transparent (e.g., slide or transparency) or reflective (e.g., opaque sheet). The projection may be limited to the outline of an opaque object such as a shadow, and in this case the object need not be planar. The term projector as used in this class designates the above structure either with or without the screen. In operation the object is positioned outside one focal plane of the projection lens system and the image is formed on a viewing surface outside the opposite focal plane of the projection
lens system. The closer the object is to the one focal plane the farther the image will be from the other focal plane, and the bigger the image will be. In the projector the relative positioning of the object is usually obtained by moving the projection lens system and adjusting its focal length rather than by changing the position of the object. As indicated in FACSIMILE, TELEVISION, AND TELEGRAPHIC PRINTING, above, the projectors including or adapted for use with recording surfaces are classified elsewhere.
This is a planar (usually) light diffusing surface positioned with its plane surface substantially transverse to the projector light for presenting the image in viewable form.
A piece of transparent film having a single image thereon, and also having a frame or two glass plates to help keep the piece of film from bending.