GENERAL SUMMARY OF SUBJECT MATTER WITHIN THIS CLASS
A. The following types of claimed subject matter are proper for this class.
1. A claim drawn to a process of making a photopolymerizable composition of reactant X plus photoiniator or photosensitizer.
2. A claim drawn to a photopolymerizable composition of reactant X plus photoinitiator or photosensitizer.
3. A claim drawn to a process of irradiating reactant X with or without a photoinitiator or photosensitizer being present.
4. A claim drawn to a photopolymerizable composition of reactant X plus photoinitiator or photosensitizer and any other material (e.g., filler, solvent, etc.).
In the types of subject matter (1-4 above), reactant X can be a monomer, low molecular weight condensation or addition product, or solid polymer. The sole proviso is that the final product be a solid polymer as is required by the Class 520 Series of classes. When a claim so expressly states, a monomer or polymer is considered to be a photoinitiator or photosensitizer.
The recitation of a specified amount of photoinitiator or photosensitizer is unnecessary for purposes of classification in this class.
B. To be properly classified in this class, a compound must have a photoinitiator or photosensitizer claimed in addition to the monomer to be polymerized or the polymer to be treated. For example, a claim drawn to a photopolymerizable composition comprising an ethylenically unsaturated monomer plus a photoinitiator is properly classified herein, whereas a claim drawn to a substituted benzophenone autopolymerizable composition is not properly classifiable in this class. The requirement for proper classification is separateness of monomer or polymer and photoinitiator or phtosensitizer. A material described as being both a photoinitiator or photosenitizer and a reactant and a separate monomer or solid polymer is a proper composition for subclass 1 of this class. Products which are the result of a wave energy process are normally excluded from this class and are classified in other areas of the 520 Series of clases. An exception to this would be a situation wherein a further wave energy step is contemplated and the formed product is an admixture with a photoinitiator or photosensitizer.
A claim drawn to a specific photoinitiator such as a benzophenone with no mention in the claim of the functionality of the substance as a photoinitiator is classified herein if the disclosure teaches the use of benzophenone as a photoinitiator.
A combination of chemical process steps not involving wave energy followed by a subsequent chemical reaction involving wave energy is classified herein provided the product is proper subject matter for the Class 520 Series.
Claims drawn to the utilization of wave energy to initiate a chemical reaction followed by the application of heat are proper for this class. For example, a process of partially polymerizing a monomer of methylfluoroacrylate by wave energy followed by treatment with heat to complete the polymerization is proper for the Class 520 Series.
The utilization of wave energy to induce a chemical reaction which thereby proceeds without the assistance of further wave energy is considered to be proper subject matter for this class; for example, a claim drawn to utilizing wave energy to activate a peroxide in order to generate free radicals, wherein the free radicals promote a chemical reaction is classified herein.
LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES
The step in a process claim utilizing wave energy is the proper basis for classification purposes. For example:
A. A claim drawn to processes of polymerixing ethylene in the presence of carbon black (DNRM) by wave energy is properly classified in subclass 71, whereas a claim drawn to polymerizing ethylene in the presence of wave energy followed by treating the product with carbon black (DNRM) is properly classified in subclass 189.
B. A claim drawn to treating polyacrylonitrile with vinyl chloride in the presence of energy is properly classified in subclass 124, whereas a claim drawn to treating a graft polyacrylonitrile-vinyl chloride copolymer with wave energy
is properly classified in subclass 149.
C. A claim drawn to the process of making polyethylene by polymerizing ethylene in the presence of wave energy followed by chemically treating said product with halogen (with no wave energy present) would be classified in subclass 189, whereas a claim drawn to the process of reacting polyethylene with halogen in the presence of wave energy following by the addition of carbon black would be classified in subclass 133.
Classification in Class 522 is on the first solid polymer prepared. For instance, a process of chemically modifying a solid polymer derived from ethylene only, by sulfonating, (nonwave energy process) and then subsequently reacting said sulfonated polymer with elemental halogen using wave energy is proper in subclass 133, since the first solid polymer prepared is polyethylene. Subclass 132 does provide for a halogenated polymer which is subsequently reacted in that the language of the subclass is "contains" rather than "derived". In subclass 154 the language is "derived" and therefore if a halogenated polyethylene is treated using wave energy classification in subclass 161 is proper since the first solid polymer is prepared from ethylene. A process of treating a solid polymer with wave energy followed by the addition of a chemical reactant is presumed, in the absence to the contrary to proceed entirely by wave energy and is classified in this class subclasses 113-147; however, a process of treating an irradiated polymer with a chemical reactant is properly classified in Class 525. Additionally a process of treating a reactant with wave energy followed by adding a solid polymer and reacting therewith is presumed in the absence of information to the contrary to proceed entirely by wave energy and is classified in this class.
A process of treating a preirradiated polymer (no wave energy process step recited) is properly classified in Classes 523-525 when no further wave energy step is claimed. For example, (1) a process of a mixed preirradiated polymer with a DNRM is properly classified in Class 524, and (2) a process for treating a preirradiated polymer with an ethylenic monomer is properly classified in Class 525.
The combination of Class 204 wave energy step followed by a Class 522 wave energy step is classified herein; for example, a claim drawn to a process of utilizing wave energy to synthesize a monomer which is subsequently polymerized in the presence of wave energy is classified herein.
The utilization of wave energy to generate heat, whereby the heat generates or induces a chemical reaction is not considrered to be "a chemical reaction induced by wave energy" and thus is not proper subject matter for Class 522. The process, however, is proper in for the Class 520 Series if a solid polymer is produced.
Class 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, appropriate subclasses provide for producing a product of the type provided for in the Class 520 Series by other than a wave energy process. Class 204 is superior to the Class 520 Series; therefore, a patent claiming in the alternative a process of preparing an organic compound and a synthetic resin or natural rubber in the presence of wave energy is classified for original purposes in Class 204 and cross-referenced to the Class 520 Series. In the situation where an alternative process claim is presented along with a specific process claim to the synthetic resin or natural rubber, there is no specific claim to the nonsynthetic resin or nonnatural rubber species, and the process is directed to wave energy, the same rule of original patent placement applies. Any process step involving electrolysis, an electric current, electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, an electrostatic field, an electrical discharge, or a magnetic field and also involving the preparing or treating of a synthetic resin or natural rubber is proper for Class 204, even when the wave energy step involved is subsequent to a Class 204 step. Combinations of chemical process steps provided for by the Class 520 Series (other than those involving wave energy) and process steps falling within the definition of Class 204 are proper for Class 204 when the Class 520 Series process steps are preparatory to the Class 204 process steps and are proper for the Class 520 Series when the Class 204 process steps are preparatory to the Class 520 Series process steps.
Class 430, Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof, appropriate subclasses provide for radiation sensitive compositions and elements and for processes of exposing said composition or elements to wave energy using an imagewise exposure technique. Class 522 provides for compositions and processes involving use of radiation for polymerizing compositions having a photoinitiator or photosensitizer or for modifying polymers. Class 430 provides for compositions solely disclosed, or claimed for radiation imagery. Compositions and processes not involving radiation imagery, or disclosing both a radiation imagery use, and another use are placed in Class 522 and cross-referenced to Class 430. Also, see Class 430 classification line for compositions with art claimed, especially, multiple use (Class 430, III A 2a).
Schedule Outline of Class 522: The schedule is divided into a number of parts, each of which is distinct and provides for different types of subject matter. The following SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS is a breakdown of the major areas and indicates the type of subject matter provided therein.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1, generic subclass for the class.
2, through 5, for manipulative process areas which provide for certain designated processes of preparing or treating a
polymer or compositions therefore. This area has no generic subclass and therefore documents not covered under the ambit of this subclass range are classified below on some other basis. 6, through 70, for the specified rate-affecting material area which provides for processes of preparing or treating polymers or compositions therefor wherein a rate-affecting material is utilized simultaneously with the wave energy and wherein at least one rate-affecting material is designated by at least one atom, e.g., a nitrogen-containing photoinitiator, etc. This area is further subdiveded into the following six subclass ranges.
7, through 30, for two or more rate-affecting materials, only one of which need be specifically claimed.
8, through 10, for either (1) at least two rate-affecting material containing a keto group which is not part of a ring (e.g., benzophenone, etc.) or (ii) the combination of one rate-affecting material containing a keto group which is not part of a ring plus a rate-affecting material referred to as a "photoinitiator or photosensitizer". The basic premise of these subclasses is that a rate-affecting material identified as a "photoinitiator or photosensitizer" is to be equated with a rate-affecting material containing a keto group wherein the keto group is not part of a ring.
11, for the combination of a rate-affecting material containing a keto group not part of a ring plus a broadly claimed rate-affecting material, other than "photoinitiator or photosensitizer", e.g., the combination of a benzophenone and a curing catalyst would be proper for this subclass, etc.
12, through 23, for the combination of either (1) a rate-affecting material containing a keto group not part of a ring plus a rate-affecting material wherein at least one atom is designated; or (2) a rate-affecting material referred to as a "photoinitiator or photosensitizer" plus a rate-affecting material wherein at least one atom is designated. The basis of classification in these subclasses is with the latter ingredient of the aforementioned combinations (1) and (2).
24, through 30, for the combination of two or more rate-affecting materials neither one of which contains a keto group not part of a ring. The basis of classification in these subclasses is with the first appearing rate-affecting material provided in the schedule hierarchy.
31, through 70, for specified rate-affecting material.
71, through 86, for the designated nonreactant areas provide for processes of preparing or treating polymers or compositions therefor, wherein a designated nonreactant material is present when the wave energy is applied.
87, through 189, for the polymer preparation or treatment area which provides for processes or compositions therefor of the following six categories.
87, through 108, specifically for proteins and carbohydrates as reactants and for treating a terminally unsaturated polyurethane, ethylenically unsaturated siloxane, polysiloxane, polyester or polypoxide derivative.
109, and 110, for chemically modifying a blend of two or more solid polymers by a chemical reactant. 111, and 112, for treating a blend of two or more solid polymers.
113, through 147, for chemically modifying a solid polymer by a chemical reactant in the presence of wave energy.
148, through 166, for treating a solid polymer in the presence of wave energy wherein a chemical reaction occurs.
167, through 189, for the preparation of a solid polymer by utilizing wave energy.
REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS
8, Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers, for bleaching or dyeing; fluid treatment and chemical modification of textiles and fibers wherein use is made of electrical radiant or wave energy other than electrolysis, for which see Class 205,
128, Surgery, for electrical or wave energy treatment of the living human body and apparatus specialized therefor.
205, Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, Methods of Preparing the Compositions,
689+, for chemical modification of textiles and fibers using electrolysis.
252, Compositions, for electrical or wave energy methods, other than electrolytic for the preparation of dispersions. 422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,
131+, for polymerization apparatus.
427, Coating Processes, for processes of coating a substrate followed by curing the coating using electrical or wave energy. Included in Class 427 are processes of producing a
coating by application of wave energy chemistry to a base material which supplies a part or all of the coating, e.g., conversion of the surface of a polymeric material to produce a film thereon by the application of wave energy, etc.
525, through 528, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, appropriate subclasses for processes of preparing and treating polymers by chemical and physical means.
DESIGNATED NONREACTANT MATERIAL (DNRM)
As used in this class, designated nonreactant material (DNRM) is a material wherein at least one of the chemical atoms can be deduced with certainty. For purposes of this class, organic material although inherently reciting the presence of a carbon atom is considered to be too broad. An exemplary list of materials to be regarded as DNRM's is as follows: metal hydrate, chalcogen, carboxylic acid, peroxy, peroxide, latex, alkali or alkaline earth metal, transition metal, halogen, proten donor, sulfiede, drying oil, fat, fatty acid or ester, water, carbon black, etc. This list is by no means limited to the above examples.
The following list is not exhaustive and merely enumerates certain materials that will not be considered as DNRM's, e.g., organic compound, metal containing, inorganic compound, organometallic compound, solvent, wax, magnetic, hydrophobic, hydrophillic, antiplasticizer, plasticizer, filler, preservative, antioxidant, antiozonant, stablizer, lubricant, fibrous additive, particulate additive, liquid, solid, gas, dispersant, emulsifier, crystalline, plastic, flourescent, phosphorescent, liminescent, deliquescent, drier, dessicant, humectant, blue color, numerically described without providing a chemical atom, Lewis acid or base, mineral, organic solvent, cosolvent, Ziegler or Natta catalysts, alfin catalyst, free radical, amphoteric, anionic, ionic, denaturant, electrostatic, dielectric, conductor, insulator, etc. This list is to be regarded as illustrative rather than exhaustive.
The term "wave energy" includes radiations as well as wave energies transmitted by various mediums and embraces electromagnetic waves or radiations, ultrasonic and supersonic waves, nuetrons, protons, duetron, and other corpuscular radiations.
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES The term "electromagnetic waves" as employed herein includes, for example, X-rays and gamma rays; ultraviolet, infrared, and visible light rays, and short electric and radio waves. Energy which produces merely a thermal effect or heat waves, per se, is excluded. Microwave energy is considered to
produce a thermal effect unless there is a direct statement to the contrary, and is not proper for this class.