US PATENT CLASS 65
Current as of: June, 1999
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This class provides for (1) processes and/or apparatus for making stock or articles of those ceramic masses, which generally include a "glass former" or an oxide which approaches glass forming properties, in their composition and which are formed by fusion of raw materials (generally mixtures, most of which are of an earthy nature - as distinguished from metallic, organic, etc., - silicon, silica, and slag are included) at ordinary high furnace temperatures, by working (molding, shaping, etc.) of the mass after being melted or changed to a plastic or softened state by heating; and (2) processes and/or apparatus for treating stock or articles made by (1) above unless otherwise provided for as shown in Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class and References to Other Classes, below.
The use of hazardous or toxic waste to make a glass material a useful product is provided for herein, however, vitrification of hazardous waste for purposes of containment is excluded, see References to Other Classes below.
Included within the scope of the class definition are:
(1) Glass fiber or filament and mineral wool making.
(2) Manufacturing processes and/or apparatus including a step of, or means for adhesively bonding glass directly to another part by welding with or without use of an intermediate ceramic or vitreous material.
(3) Manufacturing processes and/or apparatus including a step of, or means for forming a glass article from molten or softened glass.
(4) Processes and/or apparatus including a step of, or means for treating glass while in a molten or solid state.
(5) Processes and/or apparatus including a step of, or means for treating a glass preform to change a physical or chemical property thereof.
(6) Processes and/or apparatus for repairing or cleaning glass working or treating apparatus. LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES
Search notes relating to (a) processes and apparatus and (b) products will be identified appropriately.
LINES WITH CLASS 23, CLASS 117, AND CLASS 438
Although silicon and silicon dioxide are arbitrarily considered to be glass materials for Class 65, a process of growing these polycrystalline materials is proper for Class 23, even though a rod is used as a bait, unless the shape formed is not a result of crystallization or deposition on the rod. If crystallization is combined with specific glassworking and/or treating of silicon or silicon dioxide, the process is proper for Class 65, but see Class 438 for semiconductor device manufacture. Processes of growing single-crystal of all types of materials, including silicon or silicon dioxide, are proper for Class 117. The proper placement of the original of a patent claiming a Class 23 and/or Class 117 species of crystallization and a Class 65 species, or having multiple disclosure with only generic claims, is Class 117 first, then Class 23, then Class 65.
LINES WITH CLASS 422, CLASS 23, AND CLASS 148
See Class 422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, subclasses 245.1+ for apparatus directed to crystallizing a material within the class definition of Class 23. Although silicon and silicon dioxide are arbitrarily considered to be glass for Class 65, a process of, or apparatus for, growing crystals of these materials is placed in Class 23 (for a process exception, see (5) Note in Class 148, subclasses 1.5+) even though a rod is used as a bait unless the shape formed is not a result of crystallization or deposition on the rod. A combination of crystallization and specific glassworking and/or treating silicon or silicon dioxide is placed in Class 65. A patent claiming a Class 23 species of crystallization and a Class 65 species or having a multiple disclosure with generic claims only is classified in Class 23.
LINES WITH CLASS 438 AND CLASS 437
Class 438, Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process, for the combination of Class 437 unit coating operation or Class 437 unit etching operation with glass melting, shaping or forming, joining, or heat treating. Moreover, Class 438 also takes the heat treating, per se, of Class 438 semiconductor material if for purposes of modifying the electrical properties thereof. Additionally, various classes take mounting or packaging operations of semiconductor devices when glass melting, glass shaping, glass forming, or glass heat treating is combined with any coating, adhesive bonding, metal casting, metal working/deforming, metal fusion bonding, or other chemical or mechanical manufacturing operation. See notes therein for a detailed explanation of the relevant lines.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19, for the term "slag."
21, for references to Class 241
23, 31, 36, 37, 42, 376+, for references to Class 156
24, for the term "parting layer."
30.1, 31, 50, 60.1, for references to Class 427
33.1+, for references to Class 106
36, 430+, 443+, for references to Class 29
60.1, for the term "coating."
60.1+, for references to Class 8
61, for references to Class 451
111, for references to Class 250
112, 133, 174, for references to Class 83
114, for the term "temper." 117, for the term "anneal."
134.1+, for the term "fining."
134.1+, for the term "homogenize."
134.1+, for the term "purify."
134.1+, 178, for references to Class 366
154, for the term "slinger."
166, for references to Class 408
168, for references to Class 134
305, for the term "press molding."
352, for the term "bait."
376, for the term "fiber."
376, for the term "filament." REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes,
295+, for processes directed to crystallizing an inorganic compound or non-metallic element. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above.)
28, Textiles: Manufacturing, appropriate subclasses, for
processes and/or apparatus involving mechanical interengaging of fibers or strands not otherwise provided for not combined with a glass working or treating operation. (Processes and apparatus)
29, Metal Working,
400.1+, and 33+ for a process or apparatus, respectively, directed to glass working or treating combined with a metal working operation or means.
52, Static Structures (e.g., Buildings), for static building structure and related elements having a glass component, e.g., a pane, particularly
171.3+, 204.52, 204.591+, 306+, 761+, and 788+. (Products)
53, Package Making, particularly
403+, 79+, and 266.1+ for methods or apparatus, respectively for filling and/or evacuating glass receptacles and sealing same by a glass working operation. See the references to Class 65 in the notes to the definition of subclasses 403+ of Class 53; and subclasses 111+ and 428+ for a process of, or apparatus for sealing-off, per se, of a filled glass container by a glass working operation under conditions which protect or affect the contents of the container except where the glass working operation inherently results in protecting or affecting the contents in which case the process and apparatus are classified in Class 65. 57, Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining, appropriate subclasses, for processes and/or apparatus for spinning, twisting or twining of glass fibers or filaments not combined with a glass working or treating operation. (Processes and apparatus)
66, Textiles: Knitting,
202, for a knitted glass textile fabric or article. (Products)
79, Button Making,
2, for a process of and/or apparatus for making buttons or parts thereof, and assembling the same except such as are formed of plastic material (e.g., glass) which are formed in molds or are molded upon a shank. (Processes and apparatus)
117, Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor, for processes and non-coating apparatus for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, including inorganic or organic, including silicon or silica (silicon dioxide).
139, Textiles: Weaving,
420+, for woven glass textile fabric or article. (Products)
148, Metal Treatment, particularly
240+, for processes of reactive coating of metal as defined thereunder. The combination of reactive coating of metal with a glass working or treating operation is proper for Class 65. However, the combination of a significant heat treatment to modify or maintain the internal physical property (i.e., microstructure) or chemical property of the metal with a glass working or glass heat treating operation is proper in Class 148. (Processes and apparatus)
164, Metal Founding, appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for metal casting. A patent disclosing working of named materials for Class 164 and Class 65 is classified in Class 164 unless the only species claimed or the only specific example is glass in which case the patent is classified in Class 65. Combined operations including metal casting and glass working and/or treating are classified in Class 164. See Class 164, 91+, for processes of casting metal on a glass preform.
198, Conveyors: Power-Driven, appropriate subclasses, for conveyors, carriers and forwarders to move glass articles from one place to another irrespective of the particular physical condition of the article, per se. The positive recitation of a glass working station in a claim, as such, does not constitute glass working means for Class 65. (Processes and apparatus)
202, Distillation: Apparatus, appropriate subclasses for apparatus for distillation of glass while in the liquid state. The inclusion of the step of melting solid glass to the liquid state does not exclude the patent from Class 202.
203, Distillation: Processes, Separatory, appropriate subclasses, for a process of distilling high melting mixtures.
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, appropriate subclasses for applying electrical or wave energy to molten or preformed glass to bring about a chemical change (e.g., color change, etc.) of at least one constituent of the glass; follow the general guidelines for placement of an operation involving the combination of at least one Class 204 step in sequence with a separate Class 65 step as explained in the Class 204 Class Definition in the (4) and (5) Notes.
205, Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,
687+, for electrolytic material treatment, especially subclass 769 for electrolytic treatment of solid glass, silica, quartz, or optical material.
215, Bottles and Jars, appropriate subclasses, for glass bottles, jars and receptacles. (Products)
2.1+, for an envelope for an electric lamp or similar device, e.g., cathode-ray tubes (made wholly or partly of glass) not limited to use with any specific electric device or not limited by claimed structure to electrical use, and subclasses 377+, 602 and 662+ for a receptacle provided with a glass portion. (Products)
226, Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length, for a process of, or means for advancing material of indeterminate length; see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Relationship To Material-Modifying Classes Which Include Feeding Of Indeterminate-Length Work, in the class definition of Class 226 for its line with material - modifying classes which include feeding of intermediate length work. 249, Static Molds, for female molds, per se, for shaping molten glass not combined with means to displace the glass by application of external force. (Processes and apparatus)
264, Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes, for processes of working or treating plastic materials not otherwise provided for. A patent disclosing working or treating of named materials for Class 264 and Class 65 is classified in Class 264 unless the only species claimed is glass or the only specific example relates to glass in which case the patent is classified in Class 65. A patent claiming a combined process for Class 65 and Class 264 is classified in Class 65. Class 264 takes processes directed to (1) shaping a mass of green siliceous material and subsequently firing or curing the material to set the material or (2) placing discrete siliceous particles, other than glass fibers or mineral wool, onto a mold surface which particles are heated on or subsequent to contact with the surface to fuse the particles to each other. A process directed to (1) heating a material within the scope of Class 65 to the molten state and forming a shaped preform therefrom or (2) bulk depositing glass fibers into a mold surface and thereafter fusing the fibers to each other is classified in Class 65. A combined Class 65 and 264 operation is classified in Class 65.
266, Metallurgical Apparatus, appropriate subclasses, for apparatus peculiarly adapted for the treatment of metals and metalliferous materials. (Processes and apparatus)
269, Work Holders, appropriate subclasses, for work holders. (Processes and apparatus)
294, Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements, appropriate subclasses, for manual means for handling or manipulating glassware not combined with glass working or treating means. (Processes and apparatus)
313, Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices, appropriate subclasses, for electric lamp and electric space discharge device structures, such as cathode-ray tubes, especially
461+, for screens and 477+ for envelopes employed in cathode-ray tubes. (Products)
351, Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,
177, for methods of making ophthalmic lenses which usually involve some combination of grinding, glass manufacturing, and adhesive bonding; and subclass 178 for (methods of securing an eyeglass lens in its support, or of assembling such lenses in spectacle frames. (Processes and apparatus)
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,
900, for a cross reference art collection of optical methods. (Processes and apparatus) 359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, appropriate subclasses for glass structures having particular optical properties. (Products)
362, Illumination, appropriate subclasses, particularly
326+, and 341+ for glass reflectors and refractors, respectively. (Products)
403, Joints and Connections,
265+, for miscellaneous bonded joints which may comprise metal to metal and to glass, the metal and glass joint being disclosed as being formed by a glass working operation. (Products)
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,
245.1+, for apparatus directed to crystallizing a material. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above.)
423, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds, for process of manufacturing inorganic compounds, per se.
425, Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus, for apparatus for shaping or reshaping plastic materials or sizing and/or vulcanizing rubber preforms not otherwise provided for. The original copy of a patent disclosing named materials for Class 65 and Class 425 is classified in Class 425, unless the only species claimed is glass or the only specific example relates to glass, in which case the document is classified in Class 65. A document claiming the combination of Class 65 and Class 425 apparatus is classified in Class 65. Apparatus for shaping powdered glass with means to heat subsequently to obtain fusion
bonding is classified in Class 425; however, apparatus shaping glass wool or mineral wool with subsequent fusion bonding is classified in Class 65.
428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,
34, for hermetically sealed spaced glass sheets (e.g., double glazed window), subclass 38 for a light transmitting layer with a frame or border therearound (e.g., stained glass), and subclasses 426+ for a layer of quartz or glass next to a layer of another material. (Products) 430, Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof, for radiation imagery process not combined with a glass working step; and
13, for a glass block having an image therein. (Processes and apparatus)
438, Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process, for the combination of a unit coating operation or a unit etching operation with glass melting, shaping or forming, joining, or heat treating. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above.)
445, Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing appropriate subclasses, for processes of, or apparatus for the manufacture, repair or salvage of electric lamps and electric lamp space discharge devices. Combined processes and apparatus including a glass working and/or treating operation and a lamp making operation are classified in Class 445. The inclusion of the step of exhausting or providing a special atmosphere in the envelope is considered a lamp making operation for Class 445. For other lamp making operations provided for in Class 445, see the class definitions of Class 445.
501, Compositions: Ceramic,
2+, for processes of crystallizing devitrified glass-ceramic compositions; subclasses 11+ for preparing glass compositions; subclass 39 for forming pores or open cells within glass compositions; and subclasses 40, 41+, and 53+ for particular composition components. The combination of preparing, crystallizing, or pore-forming of glass compositions with specific glass working and/or treating is classified in Class 65; however, (a) a step of melting with heating to a specific temperature, or (b) the recitation of a forming step by name only (e.g., drawing, working, blowing, pressing, etc.), or (c) refining molten glass by name only is not enough to prevent placement in Class 50l. A Class 501 operation combined with specific glass treating is placed in Class 65; however, mere recitation of "treating the glass", "annealing", or "tempering" by these words only is not enough to prevent placement in Class 501.
505, Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material,
300+, for processes of producing high temperature (Tc greater than 30 K) superconductors; particularly subclass 420 for glass working, forming, or treating operations combined with superconductor manufacture. (Processes and apparatus)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "anneal." BAIT
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "bait."
A properly proportioned mixture of raw materials to be delivered to a melting apparatus.
Mechanical means for introducing a batch to a melting apparatus.
(1) A small piece of glass fused onto an electrical conductor, (2) an enlarged rounded portion on an edge of an article or stock material, (3) small discrete particles of glass.
Shaping or forming an undefined mass of glass in a soft state by introducing gas within a confined opening within the mass, i.e., by inflating.
A hollow wall generally having an air space between refractory blocks from which it is formed and providing an opening or throat adjacent its bottom used in a tank furnace to separate a working end from a fining or melting zone. CASTING
Forming a glass preform by flowing molten glass in the form of a stream into or onto molds, rolls or tables. (Teeming is synonymous to casting).
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "coating."
Shaping a layer throughout its thickness into a row of wavelike folds.
Glassware having a surface which was intentionally cracked by water immersion and partially healed by reheating.
Waste or broken glass.
DEBITEUSE A slotted floating, refractory block through which glass issues in the formation of a glass sheet during a drawing operation.
The changing of glass in the amorphous state to crystalline state generally by holding a glass melt at a temperature which favors crystal growth.
A boxlike wing on a glass furnace through which a batch or floaters, etc., are introduced into the furnace.
Forming stock, generally sheet or tube, by utilizing the self-cohesiveness of glass in a plastic condition to effect an operation similar to a "taffy-pull".
A refractory device placed in a supply of molten glass to define an area for drawing.
DRAW SHIELD Baffle means isolating stock being drawn from the hot atmosphere existing above a supply of molten glass.
Altering a surface configuration only of glass by raising a boss or protuberance thereon or causing surface portions to be depressed below the plane of the glass surface.
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "fiber."
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "filament."
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "fining."
Heating of the outer surface of hard glass to a temperature where that surface only melts and surface tension causes smoothing thereof, the heating usually being by fire or flame contact of the glass surface. FLASHING
Applying a thin layer of opaque or colored glass to the surface of clear glass, or vice versa.
Refractory blocks floating on molten glass in a tank furnace to prevent gall or scum from entering the working end.
Welding by bringing glass, while molten or softened by heating, into intimate contact with another part with subsequent cooling to solid phase whereby uniting is effected.
Means used to remove discrete charges of molten glass from a supply.
An inorganic product (a) the constituents of which generally include a "glass former" (e.g., As2O3, B2O3 GeO2, P2O5, SiO2, V2O5) which has an essential
characteristic of creating or maintaining, singly, or in a mixture, that type of structural disorder characteristic of a glassy condition, other oxides which approach glass forming properties (e.g., A12O3, BeO, PbO, Sb2O3 TiO2, ZnO and ZrO2) as well as oxides that are practically devoid of glass forming tendencies (e.g., BaO, CaO, K2O, Li2O, MgO, Na2O and SrO), however, pure and modified silica, silicon and slag are also included; (b) formed by fusion and cooled to a rigid condition generally without crystallization; (c) having no definite melting point (whereby the mass has the characteristic of passing through a plastic state before reaching a liquid state when heated); (d) incapable in the solid state of permanent deformation; and (e) which fractures when subject to deformation tension.
GLASS TREATING Effecting a change in a physical or chemical property of glass, generally involving specific heating followed by controlled cooling.
Molding, shaping, severing of uniting of glass while in a plastic state.
A discrete portion of molten glass (a) delivered by a feeder or (b) gathered on a punty or blow pipe.
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "homogenize."
Rolling a gather of glass on a flat plate whereby it is shaped and cooled.
Surplus or waste glass which must be removed from the apparatus or a product after a glass working operation.
NECK RING That portion of a segmented mold used to form a neck portion of a hollow article.
Causing movement in a regular, generally a circular or elliptical path around a fixed point.
A partially shaped article of manufacture requiring further significant shaping to arrive at the form of a completed useful article.
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "parting layer."
A mold with an inner lining of a paste (generally made from resins and linseed oil, soap, etc.) which is brushed into a hot mold and kept wet so that glass within the mold rides on a steam cushion while being formed.
A dipstick used to gather charges of molten glass, punty, puntil, pontee, and ponto are local variants. PREFORM
Stock material that has been given a shape (the term preform is used interchangeably with article, product, parison and blank).
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "press molding."
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "purify."
Changing the gross overall configuration of a glass preform by (a) confining a glass preform within a configured mold and effecting significant flow of the glass to cause it to assume the configuration of the mold or (b) distorting a glass preform by bodily moving a portion of it throughout its entire thickness relative to a second portion during which the thickness of the work piece remains substantially the same and no significant flow of the glass occurs, i.e., bending.
Changing at least one dimension of a glass preform throughout its perimeter without any appreciable change in the original configuration thereof, e.g., stretching and shrinking. SINTERING
The coalescence of particles into one solid mass through heating, generally with melting limited to a surface layer only of each particle.
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "slag."
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "slinger."
Removing surface irregularities or imperfections.
Glass that has been heated to a temperature at which it is pliable or liquid.
The temperature at which a uniform fiber, 0.5 to 1.0 mm. in diameter, elongates under its own weight at a rate of 1 mm. per minute when the upper 10 cm. of its length is heated in a prescribed furnace * at the rate of approximately 5 deg.C. per minute. (*See "A Method for Measuring The Softening Temperature of Glass", J.T. Littleton, J. Am. Ceramic Soc., 10(4), 259 (1927). SURFACE DEFORMATION
A reshaping operation involving only the surface of the glass preform and only partially through the thickness and wherein the overall shape of the preform throughout its breadth and width is unaltered.
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "temper."